Let's take a closer look at the damage that mass tourism does to the coastal environment, and why this damage occurs.
The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) estimates that internationally there were just 25 million tourist arrivals in 1950. 66 years later this number has increased to 1.2 billion international arrivals per year. This is a 49-fold increase. Europe remains the biggest single destination: in 2016, half of all tourists arrived in Europe.
Environmental stresses from human activity include litter, pollution, overcrowding and congestion.
A typical mass tourism coastal resort has the following characteristics:
Package tours yield a high concentration of low spending tourists. The number of tourists is high - but the receipts from tourism are low.
The high number of tourists causes heavy pressure on the coastal land and beaches, environment, water, energy and sanitation.
Tourism marginalises traditional economic activities. The development of tourism has increased employment opportunities but employment benefits, and the profits from tourism, have not gone equally to the local population.
Tourists bring with them many threats to environmental quality, such as litter and pollution. The more tourists, the greater the damage.
When the outflow is greater than the inflow, the stock level will go down.
The natural balance is disturbed, and the Degeneration Rate is now greater than the Regeneration rate, so the Environmental Quality declines.